Ticket Vendor

A Rest api that will manages all the tickets for the shows, movies and concerts. This API is built on the top of the django rest framework.

Posted by Praveen Chaudhary on 10 February 2021

Topics -> python, django, django-rest-framework, webdevelopment, api

Source Code Link -> GitHub

What We are going to do?

  1. Starting the TicketVendor django Project
  2. Creating a booking app within the TicketVendor Project
  3. Create a Order and Seat in booking/models.py
  4. Writing serializers for booking model data
  5. Creating a view for handling the request made from the client
  6. Adding function handlers to routes

Understanding Some Important Concepts

What is Django Framework?

Django is a Python-based free and open-source web framework that follows the model–template–views architectural pattern.

Top Features of Django Framework

  • Excellent Documentation
  • SEO Optimized
  • High Scalability
  • Versatile in Nature
  • Offers High Security
  • Provides Rapid Development

Django REST framework ?

Django REST framework is a powerful and flexible toolkit for building Web APIs.

Some reasons you might want to use REST framework:

Step 1 => Starting the Django Project

Initialize a Django project by following command. Python must be installed on your system.

pip install Django
pip install djangorestframework

You can confirm the installation by checking the django version by following command

python -m django --version

Starting the Project

django-admin startproject TicketVendor

You get the project structure like this


Step 2 -> Creating a booking app within the TicketVendor Project

What is a Django App?

An app is a Web application that does something – e.g., a Weblog system, a database of public records or a small poll app.

A project is a collection of configuration and apps for a particular website. A project can contain multiple apps. An app can be in multiple projects.

Creating the booking app

python manage.py startapp booking

That’ll create a directory booking, which is laid out like this:


Including your app and libraries in project


    # framework for making rest api

    # our main reusable components

Step 3 -> Create a Order and Seat model in booking/models.py

What is a Django Model?

A model is the single, definitive source of truth about your data. It contains the essential fields and behaviors of the data you’re storing. Django follows the DRY Principle.

The goal is to define your data model in one place and automatically derive things from it.

Let's create a Django Model.

A database contains a number of variable which are represented by fields in django model.Each field is represented by an instance of a Field class – e.g., CharField for character fields and DateTimeField for datetimes. This tells Django what type of data each field holds.

import uuid

from django.db import models

class Seat(models.Model):
    SEATNUM = models.CharField(max_length=8)
    status = models.BooleanField(default=False)

    def __str__(self):
        return f"{self.SEATNUM} {str(self.status)}"

class Orders(models.Model):
    seat = models.ForeignKey(Seat, on_delete=models.CASCADE, related_name='ticket_orders', null=True, blank=True)
    ticket_id = models.UUIDField(primary_key=True, default=uuid.uuid4, editable=True)
    person_name = models.CharField(max_length=30)

    def __str__(self):
        return self.person_name

Here, Two concepts are used

  1. Primary Key
  2. Foreign Key

A primary key is used to ensure data in the specific column is unique. A foreign key is a column or group of columns in a relational database table that provides a link between data in two tables.

Here, We have used the one to many relationship between the Orders and Seats as there can be many orders for Seat.

Adding models to admin panel

Django provides built-in admin panel to manage the data into model

from django.contrib import admin

# Register your models here.
from booking.models import Seat, Orders


Making migrations

Once the model is defined, the django will automatically take schemas and table according to the fields supplied in the django model.

python manage.py makemigrations
python manage.py migrate

Step 4 -> Writing serializers for booking model data

What are Serializers?

Serializers allow complex data such as querysets and model instances to be converted to native Python datatypes that can then be easily rendered into JSON, XML or other content types. Serializers also provide deserialization, allowing parsed data to be converted back into complex types, after first validating the incoming data.

We are using Model Serializer. But Why?

The ModelSerializer class provides a shortcut that lets you automatically create a Serializer class with fields that correspond to the Model fields.

The ModelSerializer class is the same as a regular Serializer class, except that:

  • It will automatically generate a set of fields for you, based on the model.
  • It will automatically generate validators for the serializer, such as unique_together validators.
from rest_framework import serializers

from booking.models import Orders, Seat

class OrderSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = Orders
        fields = '__all__'

class SeatSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = Seat
        fields = '__all__'


Here we are using ModelSerializer for Order and Seat model

Step 5 -> Creating a view for handling the request made from the client.

What is a Django View?

A view function, or view for short, is a Python function that takes a Web request and returns a Web response.

Http Methods

HTTP Verb CRUD Entire Collection (e.g. /customers) Specific Item (e.g. /customers/{id})
POST Create 201 (Created), 'Location' header with link to /customers/{id} containing new ID. 404 (Not Found), 409 (Conflict) if resource already exists..
GET Read 200 (OK), list of customers. Use pagination, sorting and filtering to navigate big lists. 200 (OK), single customer. 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.
PUT Update/Replace 405 (Method Not Allowed), unless you want to update/replace every resource in the entire collection. 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content). 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.
PATCH Update/Modify 405 (Method Not Allowed), unless you want to modify the collection itself. 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content). 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.
DELETE Delete 405 (Method Not Allowed), unless you want to delete the whole collection—not often desirable. 200 (OK). 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.


Importing libraries, models and serializers

from uuid import UUID

from django.db.models import Q
from rest_framework import status, exceptions
from rest_framework.exceptions import NotFound
from rest_framework.generics import GenericAPIView, ListCreateAPIView
from rest_framework.mixins import CreateModelMixin
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.views import APIView

from TicketVendor.settings import MAX_OCCUPANCY
from booking.models import Orders, Seat
from booking.serializers import OrderSerializer, SeatSerializer

Vacating the Seat if occupied

class VacateApi(APIView):
    This class will update the status of seats

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        seat_objects = Seat.objects.filter(SEATNUM=request.data['SEATNUM'])
        if seat_objects.exists() and seat_objects[0].status is True:
            seat = Seat.objects.get(pk=seat_objects[0].pk)
            seat.status = False
            return Response("updated status", status=status.HTTP_200_OK)
        return Response("Seat not Found or Already vacant", status=status.HTTP_404_NOT_FOUND)

Booking / Occupying seat

class OccupyApi(ListCreateAPIView):
    serializer_class = OrderSerializer
    queryset = Orders.objects.all()

    def get(self, request, **kwargs):
        return self.list(request)

    def perform_create(self, serializer):
        # It will check the free seats
        all_seats = Seat.objects.filter(status=False)
        if all_seats.exists():
            seat = Seat.objects.get(pk=all_seats[0].pk)
            seat.status = True
            # if free slot not present raise exception
            raise NotFound(detail="All seats Resereved", code=404)

    def post(self, request, **kwargs):
        return self.create(request)

Getting ticket info

class GetInfoApi(GenericAPIView):

    def validate_uuid4(self, uuid_string):
        # This function checks the valid UUID
            val = UUID(uuid_string, version=4)
        except ValueError:
            return False

        return True

    def get_object(self, **kwargs):
        # Here key refers to the request data , it can be ticket id , person name or seat number
        key = kwargs['key']

        # First it tries to find the ticket using seat no and person name
        ticket = Orders.objects.filter(Q(seat__SEATNUM=key) | Q(person_name=key))
        if ticket.exists():
            return ticket[0]

        # It check if uuid is valid or not
        valid_uuid = self.validate_uuid4(key)
        if valid_uuid:
            ticket = Orders.objects.filter(ticket_id=key)
            if ticket.exists:
                return ticket[0]
        raise exceptions.NotFound(detail="No Result Found", code=404)

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        ticket = self.get_object(**kwargs)
        serializer = OrderSerializer(instance=ticket)
        if serializer.is_valid:
            return Response(serializer.data, status=status.HTTP_200_OK)
        return Response(serializer.errors, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)

Adding seat to Hall

class AddSeatApi(CreateModelMixin):
    serializer_class = SeatSerializer

    # this function will overwrite the default create Model mixin, We can even use the APIview class too.
    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        total_seat = Seat.objects.count()
        if total_seat > MAX_OCCUPANCY-1:
            return Response("Seat exceeds the MAX_OCCUPANCY", status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)
        serializer = self.serializer_class(data=request.data)
        return Response(serializer.data, status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return self.create(request, *args, **kwargs)

We are using Django Response in-built function.


  • data: The serialized data for the response.
  • status: A status code for the response. Defaults to 200. See also status codes.
  • template_name: A template name to use if HTMLRenderer is selected.
  • headers: A dictionary of HTTP headers to use in the response.
  • content_type: The content type of the response. Typically, this will be set automatically by the renderer as determined by content negotiation, but there may be some cases where you need to specify the content type explicitly.

Step 6 -> Adding function handlers to routes.(booking/urls.py)

Whenever user visit the user, a function is called in view which takes care of response.


from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path, include

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('api/', include('booking.urls'))

Adding sub path for booking app(booking/urls.py)

It defines the particular path for booking app

from django.urls import path

from booking import views

urlpatterns = [
    path('vacate/', views.VacateApi.as_view()),
    path('occupy/', views.OccupyApi.as_view()),
    path('get_info/', views.GetInfoApi.as_view()),
    path('add_seat', views.AddSeatApi.as_view())

How to run our django app ?

  1. Create a virtual env with python3 -m venv env
  2. Activate virtual env with .env/bin/activate
  3. Install requirements using pip install -r requirements.txt
  4. Run the server locally using python3 manage.py runserver

Hurray! Our server is running.

Go to


  1. /api/vacate : This endpoint takes the person name and the seat number to vacate that particular seat. Make a post request to this endpoint with content type="application/json"
    Example :- Endpoint :-
    Data :- { "SEATNUM":"A1" }
  2. /api/get_info/[ticket_id or Person name or Seat no] :- This endpoint will provide you all the information about your ticket. Simple add the ticket_id or Person name or Seat no in the url and it will give a response in json format.
    Example : - Direct url
  3. api/occupy :- This endpoint will search all the seat. If it finds one then it will book that for you and provide details in response but if it unable to find one then it will raise 404 status code with All seats reserved.
    Example : -
        "ticket_id": "2edc7cc5-f436-4104-b799-64ca94cd3e2e",
        "person_name": "Praveen Chaudhary" 
  4. /api/add_seat :- This endpoint will add seat to the database and checks that the number of seat will not exceed the MAX_OCCUPANCY
    Example : -
    Endpoint Data
    { "SEATNUM": "A2" }

Add Some styles to make it attractive


You can easily deploy on Heroku

You can read more about on Analytics Vidhya Blog

Web Preview / Output

web preview Ticket Vendor

Placeholder text by Praveen Chaudhary · Images by Binary Beast